A method using a Green's function is developed for computing transient temperatures in a semitransparent layer by using the two-flux method coupled with the transient energy equation. Each boundary of the layer is exposed to a hot or cold radiative environment, and is heated or cooled by convection. The layer refractive index is larger than one, and the effect of internal reflections is included with the boundaries assumed diffuse. The analysis accounts for internal emission, absorption, heat conduction, and isotropic scattering. Spectrally dependent radiative properties are included, and transient results are given to illustrate two-band spectral behavior with optically thin and thick bands. Transient results using the present Green's function method are verified for a gray layer by comparison with a finite difference solution of the exact radiative transfer equations; excellent agreement is obtained. The present method requires only moderate computing times and incorporates isotropic scattering without additional complexity. Typical temperature distributions are given to illustrate application of the method by examining the effect of strong radiative heating on one side of a layer with convective cooling on the other side, and the interaction of strong convective heating with radiative cooling from the layer interior.